IT CODE(402) CBSE- X With Pdf.

UNIT - 2

WEB APPLICATION : Networking Fundamentals

Network: A computer network is a collection of computers and other hardware
components interconnected by communication channels (cables or satellites) that
allow sharing of resources and information.
Networks are designed using the following architecture:

Peer to peer (P2P): Networkn which all computers have an equal status are called
peer to peer networks. Generally in such a network each terminal has an equally
competent CPU.

Client-Server: Networks, in which certain computers have special dedicated tasks,
providing services to other computers (in the network) are called client server
networks. The computer(s) which provide services are called servers and the ones
that use these services are called clients.

Types of Network:
There are 2 major types of network:-
1) LAN:- LAN is Local Area Network. It is used to connect computers and
devices within a small geographical area such as home, school etc.

2) WAN:- WAN is Wide Area Network. It is used to connect computers in a
broad area such as national and international boundaries.
Eg. Internet.
Internet: Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that
use the standard Internet protocol suite to serve billions of users worldwide. It is
a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic,
business, and government networks.
World Wide Web: World Wide Web (abbreviated as WWW or W3, commonly
known as the Web), is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via
the Internet.

Web Browser: A Web Browser is software used to view Web sites and acts as an
interface between the user and the World Wide Web.

Web Server: A Web server is a computer that stores web sites and their related
files for viewing on the Internet.

Uses of Network:-
1) Data Sharing: We can share data like text files, documents, audio and video
files to other users with the help of Networking.

2) Hardware Sharing: Hardware components like printers, scanners etc. can
also be shared with the help of networking.

3) Internet Access Sharing: Through networking we can access a single
internet connection on multiple computers within a network.

4) Usage of Network Based Applications: Applications like chat applications,
audio and video calling is an another advantage.
Getting Access to the Internet:-
To use Internet we need the following:-
1) ISP:- ISP is Internet Service Provider. It is an organization which provides us
with the access of Internet. For eg. BSNL, Airtel, MTNL etc.

2) Modem:- The word modem is derived from its function
Modulator/DEModulator. It is a device which is used to convert digital
computer signals into analog signals and vice-versa.
Types of Internet Connectivity
Types of Internet Connectivity can be broadly categorized into Wired Technology
and Wireless Technology.
Wired Technology:-

1) Dial-up:- It uses the facilities of the Public Switched Telephone Network
(PSTN) to establish a internet connection via telephone lines using a device
called MODEM. Users dial a number and get access to internet. Dial-up
connections are extremely slow.

2) DSL:- DSL is Digital Subscriber Line provides internet connectivity by
transmitting digital data over wires of a local telephone network. It enables
the use of Telephone and Data Transmission on a single telephone line. For
using DSL Connection, we need a DSL modem and a subscription.

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