UNIT – 1



“A” and “an” are called indefinite articles because they do not refer to any particular person or 

thing. Indefinite articles are used before singular countable nouns. “A” is used before 

consonant and “An” is used before vowels.

Example:- a paper, a book, an apple, a girl, an hour

“The” is called the Definite article because it is used to refer to a particular person or thing. The 

Definite article is used before singular countable nouns, plural countable nouns and 

uncountable nouns.

Example:- the book, the books, the milk


Fill in the blanks with correct articles A, AN and The

1. Could you get me ____ bowl of chicken soup? (a, the)

2. For dessert, ___ plate of kheer will do (a, the, no article needed)

3. Please get me ___ glass of water.

4. Excuse me, where is _____ washroom?

5. I would like to have ____ onion masala dosa and vanilla ice-cream.


The words used in place of noun is called pronoun.

Example, He, she, I, We, you, they, It, etc.


1. Except Ruhi and ______ everyone else arrived late at the class (I/me)

2. We must reach the airport on time, or else ______ will miss the flight. (We/us)

3. We really enjoyed ________ on the trip to manali last month. (us/ourselves)

4. His friends did not appreciate ______ going to the fair alone. (his /himself)

5. Ravi was very helpful to ____. (us/ourselves)


ADJECTIVES – An adjective is a word or set of words that modifies a noun or pronoun. 

Adjectives may come before the word they modify.

Example – 1. That is a cute puppy. 

Adjectives may also follow the word they modify. Example:-That puppy looks cute.

ADVERBS - An adverb is a word or set of words that modifies verbs, adjectives or other 
adverbs. An adverb answer how, when, where, why, or to what extent, how often or how 
Example – 1. He speaks slowly (tells how)
2. She arrived today ( tells when)
1. I am ________ to take the test. (adjective)
2. I am ______ taking the test. (adverb)
3. I was __________ when I received the certificate. (adjective)
4. I _______ received the certificate. (adverb)
A preposition is a word that links a noun and pronoun to other words in a sentence. Example. 1. 
We went to the market. 2. The market is just around the corner.
Prepositions are used as follows.
• Prepositions of time: at, on, in, during, since, until, by etc. Use at for specific times, on 
for days and dates, and in for non-specific times. Example – We reached the school at 
7:20 am. We reached the hostel on Monday. We will reach the airport in an hour.
• Prepositions of place: at, on, in, over, above, under, beside, behind, etc. Use at for 
specific places, on for roads, streets etc, and in for cities, countries etc. Example – We 
went to the library. The library is on Hudson Lane.
• Prepositions of directions: to, from, across, through, around, into, towards etc. Example 
– The electronic shop is across the street. The cricketers went in that direction.
• Preposition indicating other relationships: by, with, of, for, etc. Example – This sari is 
made of silk. A surprise is waiting for you.
1. The florist stall is _____ Kamana’s house. (below, under)
2. The jeweler’s store is right next ____ the bus stop. (for, to)
3. The book store is just _________ the street (across, under)
4. Walk _____ you reach the traffic point (till, before)
Tense – Tense is the form, a verb takes to show the time it happened. There are three main 
1. Present Tense – things that are true when the words are spoken or written. 
2. Past Tense – things that were true before the words were spoken or written. 
3. Future Tense – things that will be true after the words are spoken or written.
1. Present Tense
Types of Present Tense
1. Simple Present Tense – A sentence is presented in simple present tense when it is used 
to describe an action that’s happening at present and does not indicate when the action 
is expected to end.

Structure – Subject + Verb (1st Form) + s/es 
2. Present Continuous Tense – Present continuous defines an act that is going on at the 
time of speaking. 
Structure – Subject + is/am/are + Verb (1st Form) + ing + Object
3. Present Perfect Tense – Present Perfect tense explains the incident that has happened 
in the past and that continues until the present time.
Structure – Subject + has/have + Verb (3rd form)
2. Past Tense
Types of Past Tense
1. Simple Past Tense – A sentence is presented in simple past tense when it is used to 
describe an action that was happened in past.
Structure – Subject + Verb (2nd Form) + Object
2. Past Continuous Tense – Past continuous defines an action that was already happened 
in the past and have been completed before the time.
Structure – Subject + was/were + Verb (1st Form) + ing + Object
3. Past Perfect Tense – Past Perfect tense explains the non continuous action that was 
already completed in the past.
Structure – Subject + had + Verb (3rd form) + Object
3. Future Tense
Types of Future Tense
1. Simple Future Tense – This tense refer to the actions which will occur later, in the 
Structure – Subject +will/shall + Verb (1st Form) + Object.
2. Future Continuous Tense – Future continuous defines an action which will be continued 
at a future point of time. 
Structure – Subject + will +be + Verb (1st Form) + ing + Object
3. Future Perfect Tense – Future Perfect tense express an action that is predicted to be 
finished within a certain span of time in the future.
Structure – Subject + will + have + Verb (2nd form) + Object
MODALS:- Modals are helping verbs. They help to express the mood of the main verb. The 
various modals are: can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would. They have various uses:
1. Asking for permission: Example – May I come in?
2. Making a Request: Example - Can/Could you pass me the book?
3. Expressing obligation: Example – You should do the work yourself.
4. Expressing determination: Example – I will finish the project.
5. Expressing ability: Example – I can solve the riddle.
6. Expressing probability: Example – It might rain tomorrow.
7. Expressing willingness: Example – I will meet you tomorrow.

Exercise: Fill with modals:
1. I ______ meet you day after tomorrow. (will / would)
2. What _____ I do for you. (Can / could)
3. It ______ rain today. (May / might)
4. You _____ do the work yourself. (Shall / should)
CONNECTOR AND CONJUNCTIONS:- Connectors are words used to express relationship 
between ideas and combine paragraphs and sentences. For example: but, also, however, 
moreover, etc.
Conjunctions are words used to connect phrases and words. For example: and, so, or etc.
Note: Conjunctions can also be used as Connectors.
1. The boy is active ____ intelligent. (and / because)
2. You should carry an umbrella ________ it is raining outside. (so / because)
3. You should wash your hands ____ you eat. (before / because)
4. I _____ my sister went to watch a movie. (or / and)

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